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Size : 2. In many ways, the tag selector interface makes the job of identifying the HTML skeleton much easier, especially in complex page designs. These are some of the new semantic elements being introduced in HTML5. By using elements that are named for speciic tasks or types of content, you can streamline code construction while achieving other beneits as well.
For example, as search engines, such as Google and Yahoo, are optimized for HTML5, they will be able to locate and identify speciic types of content on each page more quickly, making your site more useful and easier to browse. Using these new elements means that you can apply complex CSS styling while reducing the complexity of the code overall.
You can still use class and id attributes, but the new semantic elements reduce the need for this technique. Style display is typically on by default showing a check mark in the menu. Without the CSS styling, the navigation menu reverted back to a simple bulleted, or unordered, list with hyperlinks.
Not too long ago this menu would have been built with images and complex rollover animation. If the images failed to load, the menu usually became a jumbled, unusable mess. But navigation built on text-based lists, on the other hand, will always be usable, even without styling. Get into the habit of saving your iles on a regular basis.
It will prevent the loss of data and important changes to your iles. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the site root folder, if necessary. Name the ile mylayout. All HTML pages created for the inal site will be saved in the site root folder. If you start at the top of the page and work down, the irst step would be to insert the graphical banner that appears in the inal design. You could insert the banner directly into the header, but adding it as a background image has the advantage of leaving that element open for other content.
It will also allow the design to be more adaptable to other applications, like cell phones and mobile devices. Press Delete. When you delete the image placeholder, the empty header will collapse to a fraction of its former size because it has no CSS height speciication.
But HTML5 is not the current web standard and some pages or components may not display properly on certain older browsers and devices. With all the caveats out of the way, the ugly truth is that even when you use standard HTML 4 code and components, older browsers and certain devices will still fail to render them properly.
Some web design- ers believe that the longer we persist in using the older code, the longer the older software and devices will hang around making our lives diicult and delaying the inevitable adoption of HTML5.
These design- ers say we should abandon the older standards and force users to upgrade as soon as possible. Background images repeat both vertically and horizontally by default. Click Apply. Note that the image is slightly narrower than the container. Before clicking OK, we need to add some inishing touches to the element. Did you notice that the butterly actually overlaps both the header and the hori- zontal navigation bar?
This technique has declined dramatically in recent years as the need to support cell phones and other mobile devices has increased. For certain applications, AP divs are still handy. An AP div will appear at the top left of the header. Note the ID apDiv1 assigned to the new div in the tag selector. A corresponding rule has been added to the CSS Styles panel. Another property to be aware of is the z-index. By default, all elements have a z-index of zero 0. On the other hand, the AP div has a z-index of 1, which means it will appear above all the other elements on the page.
All the values displayed in the Property inspector are actually stored in the apDiv1 rule that was generated automatically by Dreamweaver. Select butterly-ovr. Observe the dimensions of the image: pixels by pixels. The PNG ile type supports alpha transparency, making this 3D efect pos- sible. Unfortunately, older browsers may not support alpha transparency and other PNG features. If you use PNG iles with such efects, always test them in your target browsers to make sure the desired efects are supported.
Change the height to px. Type 30 px in the Left margin ield. An AP div acts like a free agent. Press the Right Arrow key. Type FFC in the Color ield. Select Bold from the Font-weight ield. Enter 20 px in the Right padding ield. Enter 5 px Bottom ield, remember in the Bottom padding ield.
Enter the following values only in the corresponding Bottom border ields: solid, 2 px, Dreamweaver does ofer HTML 4 layouts that match the design criteria much more closely, but it was hard to resist working with an HTML5 layout and all the new semantic elements.
Besides, adjusting the layout is a lot easier than you may think. For example, the overall width has to be modiied to match the banner image. You can use the rulers to measure the width and height of HTML elements or images. To give you more lexibility, you can set this zero point anywhere in the Design window.
Drag the crosshairs to the upper-left corner of the header element in the current layout. Note the width of the layout. Using the ruler, you can see that the layout is between and pixels wide. Observe the tag selector display to locate any elements that may control the width of the entire page; it would have to be an element that contains all the other elements. By now you should be getting good at CSS forensics using the tag selector interface and the Code Navigator. In our example, the main content area shifted down below the sidebar.
Note its width: pixels. In the Properties section of the panel, change the width to px. For this application, a thin border makes the most sense. In the Border category, if necessary select the Same For All check boxes and enter the following values for all border ields: solid, 2px, and A dark green border appears around the page edge.
Type Green News. Change Link two to read Green Products. Change Link three to read Green Events. Change Link four to read Green Travel. Type Green Tips. Observe the menu items and compare the irst four with the last. Can you see the diference? For Green Tips to look like the other menu items, you have to add a hyperlink, or at least a similar placeholder. All the menu items are identically formatted now.
In some cases, the rules listed may only afect the element in a roundabout way, as in the body rule, which afects all HTML elements on the page. Remember, more than one rule can, and probably will, format each page element. Be careful. Sound right? In the Properties section of the panel, change the existing background color to But the black text is diicult to read against the green background color. As you see in the horizontal menu, a lighter color would be more appropriate.
You can use the Properties section of the CSS Styles panel to add, as well as edit, element properties. A new property ield appears. Type FFC in the Value ield. According to the Code Navigator, the nav ul a, nav format various default hyperlink behaviors. Inserting an image placeholder he sidebar will feature photos, captions, and short blurbs on environmental top- ics. If it were, it would inherit any margins, padding, and other formatting applied to the paragraph, which could cause it to disrupt the layout.
Type in the Height ield. Type Insert caption here. Type Insert main heading here to replace the text. Type Insert subheading here to replace the text. Type Insert content here to replace it.
Type Copyright Meridien GreenStart. Checking browser compatibility he CSS layouts included with Dreamweaver have been thoroughly tested to work lawlessly in all modern browsers. However, during the lesson you made major modiications to the original layout.
Before you use this page as your project template, you should check its compatibility. When the Report box opens, there should be no issues listed. You created a workable basic page layout for your project tem- plate and learned how to insert additional components, image placeholders, text, and headings; adjust CSS formatting; and check for browser compatibility. In the upcoming lessons, you will work further on this ile to complete the site template, tweak the CSS formatting and set up the template structure.
How did they get here? It allows you to investigate what CSS rules are formatting a selected element and how they are applied. Stored in a cascading style sheet CSS , the formatting can be quickly changed and substituted for speciic applications and devices. Note the layout, various colors, and other formats applied to the text and page elements—all created by cascading style sheets CSS.
Using the comment structure allows such applications to ignore the CSS. When you create new rules or edit existing ones, Dreamweaver makes all the changes in the code for you, saving you time and reducing the possibility of code-entry errors.
P Note: The names and order of styles in your panel may vary from those pictured. But as you can see in the CSS Styles panel above, the rule reference appears near the bottom of all the rules.
In this instance, moving this rule within the style sheet will not afect how it formats the element but it will make it easier to ind if you need to edit it later. P Note: Before 6 Select the apDiv1 rule and drag it directly underneath the. It has also rewritten the code in the embedded style sheet, moving the rule to its new position. Arranging related rules together can save time later when you need to format speciic elements or components.
But be on the lookout for unintended consequences. Observe the properties and values that appear in the Property section of the panel.
Most of these settings came with the layout, although you changed the background color in the last lesson. Note that the margins and padding are set to zero. As in the body rule, this rule sets all margin and padding values to zero. Do you know why? An experienced web designer could select each rule in turn and probably igure out the reasons for each of the formats and settings. If you are in Design view, Dreamweaver will display the document in Split view and then focus on the section of code that contains the ul, ol, dl rule.
In Code view, it will jump to the appropriate lines that contain the rule. Like HTML comments, this text usually provides behind-the-scenes information that will not be displayed within the browser or afect any elements.
Comments are a good way to leave handy reminders within the body of the webpage or to leave notes to yourself or others explaining why you wrote the code in a particular fashion. It will help you ind speciic rules quickly and help remind you what you have already styled within your page.
P Note: When 11 Using the CSS Styles panel, reorder the rules in the list, as necessary, so they moving rules using the match the order shown in the igure below. CSS Styles panel, the position of comments that are not embedded may not be preserved. Working with type One of the irst basic choices any designer must make for a website is selecting the default typeface or typefaces. Some designers may use multiple typefaces for diferent purposes throughout the site.
Others select a single base typeface that may match their normal corporate themes or culture. CSS gives you tremendous control over page appearance. Some call this technique degrading gracefully. Dreamweaver CS6 ofers more than a dozen predeined font groups. You have successfully changed the basic font of the entire webpage by editing one rule.
All the text on the page now displays in Trebuchet MS. Headings, paragraphs, and list elements are all sized relative to this setting. Font size can convey the relative importance of the content on the page. Headings are typically larger than the text they introduce for that reason. Observe the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window. Identify the element that contains this caption.
To reduce the text size, you could create a new compound rule to format any of those elements. Such a rule would narrowly target the styling to content contained therein and ignore the vertical menu altogether. Many designers resort to images to add graphical lair when code-based techniques can be problematic.
But large images can consume too much Internet bandwidth and make pages slow to load and respond. In some cases, a strategically designed small image can be used to create interesting 3D shapes and efects. In this exercise, you will learn how to create a three-dimensional efect with the help of a tiny image graphic and the CSS background property.
Click the Browse button next to the Background-image ield. Observe the image dimensions and preview. Notice the lighter shade of green at the top of the graphic. Since the page is pixels wide, you know that this graphic could never ill the horizontal menu unless it were copied and pasted hundreds of times. Some graphics, with shading, like background.
CSS allows you to control the repeat to ill the entire element as necessary. Note that function and limit it to either the vertical or horizontal axis. Choose repeat-x from the Background-repeat ield menu.
Creating descendant selectors he predeined style sheet declares a rule for multiple elements that will afect all h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, and p tags no matter where they appear on the page. But if you want to target a style at a speciic tag within a speciic element, it requires a descendant selector.
Dreamweaver makes it easy to create such rules. Note the names and order of the tag selectors at the bottom of the document window. As described earlier in this chapter, when creating new rules take care about where they appear in the style sheet. Rules at the top of the sheet can pass formatting to rules appearing later using inheritance or cancel settings because of higher speciicity. Inserting a rule in the wrong place could cause the browsers to ignore it altogether.
P Note: When the cursor is inserted into Because you selected the. If the Compound compound selector selector type is not displayed, choose it from the Selector Type menu. Typically, when the cursor is inserted not displayed when the into page content, the dialog box defaults to the Compound selector type and dialog box irst appears. Whenever possible, rules should be simpliied to reduce the total amount of code that needs to be downloaded.
Enter 5px in the Bottom margin ield. Note that the new rule was inserted directly after the. Dreamweaver makes it easy to apply classes. Make sure the cursor is lashing in the element and that no text is selected. P Note: You may need to refresh the page display to see the updated tag selector. When the cursor is inserted in an existing element, Dreamweaver assumes you want to apply the class to the entire element. Choose green from the Class menu in the Property inspector.
Now remove the class. Insert the cursor anywhere in the formatted text. When the cursor is inserted in Design or Code view. Creating custom IDs he CSS id attribute is given the highest speciic weight in CSS styling because it is used to identify unique content on a webpage and therefore should trump all other styling. Right-click the selector name and choose Edit Selector from the context menu.
Note the ID displayed in the Property inspector. Note that the menu has two apparent options: apDiv1 and logo. You can demonstrate this functionality with a simple test.
You see this diference as soon as you insert an AP div into a document: Dreamweaver creates a rule for it automatically and assigns it attributes for width, height, position, and z-index, and it then displays these speciications in the Property inspector. In fact, the special treatment persists even after the rule is created.
If you change the id attribute of the AP div in the Property inspector, Dreamweaver will update the name of the rule in the CSS Styles panel at the same time. However, the reverse is not true. If you change the rule name using the style sheet as you did in this lesson , Dreamweaver does not change the ID on the element itself. The program leaves this chore up to you. What happened to apDiv1?
Additionally, as each ID stored in the style sheet is used in your layout, Dreamweaver interactively removes it from the menu to prevent you from accidentally using it a second time. Many designers create these attributes irst and then deine them later, or use them to diferentiate speciic page structures, or to create hyperlink destinations. Some class and id attributes may never appear in the style sheets or pop-up menus.
Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items. P Note: Rollover refers As the mouse moves over each button, the cursor icon changes to the hand back to the time when pointer, indicating that the menu items are formatted as hyperlinks.
Observe the behavior and appearance of the menu items, if any. Do not select the spaces on either making changes to your side of the word or the vertical bars, or pipes, that separate the words. If Adding a hash mark in the Link ield creates a hyperlink placeholder and desired, you can change will allow you to create and test the necessary formatting for the horizontal both the content and navigation menu without having to create an actual link.
Note that the text now styling using the Code displays the formatting of a typical text hyperlink. Be sure to select both words in each item before applying the placeholder.
Watch for any undesirable side efects. The a:link pseudoclass in many cases is interchangeable with the a selector in CSS rules. However, as you already experienced earlier, a:link is more speciic and may override speciications assigned to the less speciic a selector if both are used in the style sheet.
This speciication is reset whenever the browser cache or history is deleted. When used, the pseudoclasses must be declared in the order as listed above to be efective. Remember, whether declared in the style sheet or not, each state has a set of default formats and behaviors. When a link has been used, it usually changes color, indicating that you visited that destination earlier. However, in the vertical and horizontal menus, we do not want the links to change their appearance after you click them.
To prevent or reset this behavior, you can create a compound rule that will format both states of the link at once. Type :link to add it at the end of the selector name. Type a comma , and press the spacebar to insert a space. By combining these two selectors into one rule, you are formatting the default properties of both hyperlink states at once.
Position the cursor over the hyperlink placeholders in the horizontal menu. But these hyperlinks have none of the lair of the vertical menu, with its changing background color. As explained, that interactive behavior is controlled by the pseudoclass a:hover.
Save the ile. Select the nav p a:link, state inherits much of its formatting from a nav p a:visited rule in the CSS Styles panel. In most he New CSS Rule dialog box appears with the Compound selector type cases, you only need to declare values for displayed and the text. Edit the Selector Name to say nav p a:hover, nav p a:active, and click OK. You can create a more interesting efect by add space outside the adding a little padding to the element.
Double-click the nav p a:hover, nav p a:active rule to edit it. Luckily, the solution to this problem is quite simple. Have you igured out what you need to do? It can be used to delete a rule property or the entire rule, depending on how it is invoked. Before using it, note the tooltip that appears when the cursor hovers over it. When the mouse moves over the links, the background color extends ive pixels around the link without shifting.
Do you understand why you added the padding to the default hyperlink? By adding padding to the default state, the hover state automatically inherits the extra padding and allows the background color to work as desired, without shifting the text. To be consistent, the colors used in the site should adhere to the overall site theme. Since you know that the hover state is responsible for creating the interactive link behavior, it should be a simple matter to change the background color in the vertical menu.
Observe the names and the order of elements in the tag selector display. Is there an a:hover pseudoclass associated with it? In the Background category, change the background color to By applying diferent colors to each border, you can give the but- tons a 3D appearance.
As in the previous exercise, you irst need to locate the rules formatting the elements. Observe the attributes displayed in the Properties section of the panel. Enter solid, 1px, in the Right border ields. Enter solid, 1px, in the Bottom border ields.
Enter solid, 1px, 0C0 in the Left border ields. Before After By adding lighter colors to the top and left and darker colors to the right and bottom, you have created a subtle but efective three-dimensional efect.
Creating faux columns Although multicolumn designs are very popular on the web, HTML and CSS have no built-in commands to produce true column structures in a webpage.
Instead, columnar designs—like the one used in the Dreamweaver CSS layouts—are simu- lated by using several types of HTML elements and various formatting techniques, usually combining margins and the loat attribute. HTML5 and CSS3 can display text in multiple columns, but for the time being, the page layouts themselves will still depend on the older techniques. Unfortunately, these methods have their limitations and downsides.
For example, one of the problems with the layout used in this lesson is getting both columns to display at the same height. Either one column or the other will almost always be shorter. Since the sidebar has a background color, there will be a visible gap at the bottom as content is added to the main page. Many designers sidestep the issue alto- gether simply by refusing to use background colors. Instead, you will create the efect of a full-height sidebar column by using a back- ground graphic combined with the CSS repeat function.
Examine the tag selector display. Examine its properties. In the Background category, click the Browse button. Select divider. Right-click the button and choose Code Navigator from the context menu.
Chances are a margin setting is producing the spacing efect. Select the bottom-margin setting in the Properties section. It makes the process of testing and uploading quick and simple.
But an internal style sheet can style only one page. An external style sheet can be linked to any number of pages and, for most web applications, is the normal and preferred worklow. Dreamweaver provides the means to handle that task quickly and easily. Hold the Shift key P Note: The last style and select the last style.
You could also right-click the selected area to access the Move CSS Rules option from the context menu. Click Save. Note at the top of the document window that Dreamweaver now displays the name of the external style sheet in the Related Files interface. More than one style and referenced that have been changed are sheet can be linked to a page. By creating and attaching style sheets optimized for not automatically saved.
For example, the style sheet created and applied in the previous exercises was designed for a typical computer display. Print style sheets often adjust colors to work better for laser and inkjet printers, hide unneeded page elements, or adjust page sizes and layouts to be more suitable for printing. When the print queue is activated, the printing application checks for a print- media style sheet. If one is present, the relevant CSS rules are taken into account.
Displaying the style rendering toolbar If no media-type attribute appears in a style sheet, the browser or web applica- tion assumes that the CSS styles are intended for screen display. However, you have the ability to switch what media type is rendered in Design view by using the Style Rendering toolbar. Leave it visible for the next exercise. Make sure the site root folder is targeted. From the Media ield menu, choose print. At the moment, both style sheets are identical. You will modify the print style sheet in the next exercise.
Using the print- media style sheet, you can hide unwanted portions of a page. Before you can hide these menus, we need to create a new rule. Delete repeat-y from the Background-repeat ield. Deleting the image reference is not enough. Click the Live view button. Although the Style Rendering toolbar is set to Print, Dreamweaver ignores the print-media styles and renders the page for the screen.
To properly test the page, you have to use the print preview function in an actual browser. P Note: Some 15 Once the page has loaded in the browser, activate print preview. Always test printing the butterly logo and the page borders. In the Border category, what other styles you if necessary, select the Same For All option in the Style section. Choose none need to modify for from the Top Style ield. You should know enough now to keep the butterly logo from printing, too.
Take a few minutes here and see if you can do it. Whenever you can remove unneeded code from your pages, you should do so. It reduces ile size and allows the pages to download and respond more quickly. You can delete unneeded styles using the CSS Styles panel. Click Yes to delete multiple rules.
In fact, you can remove all the rules that format hyperlink behavior. After deleting any rules, make sure you test the page in the browser and in the print application.
Observe the screen display in Design view. Dreamweaver renders the document for the web. Dreamweaver renders the screen using the print style sheet. You have adapted a screen-media style sheet to render a webpage more appropriately in print.
You have completed the basic design of the page that will be used as the project template, and you have adapted it to print media. In the next lesson, you will learn how to convert this layout into a dynamic web template. Observe the design and structure of this page.
Note the mouse icon Dreamweaver displays. Type Get a fresh start with GreenStart to replace the text. Select your default browser. For all intents and purposes, a template-based page is just a normal HTML ile. Creating a template from an existing layout A template is a type of master page from which related child pages are produced. Templates are useful for setting up and maintaining the overall look and feel of a website, while providing a means for quickly and easily producing site content.
A template is diferent from the pages you have already completed; it contains areas that are editable and other areas that are not. Templates enable a workgroup environment where page content can be created and edited by several people on the team, while the web designer is able to control the page design and speciic ele- ments that must remain unchanged. Or, if you are starting from scratch in this exercise, in the lesson06 folder.
Because of their special nature, templates are stored in their own folder, Templates, which Dreamweaver automatically creates at the site root level. Leave the Description ield empty.
If you have more than one ilename, like adding template in a site, a description may be useful. P Note: A dialog box may appear asking about saving the ile without deining editable regions; just click Yes to save anyway. An untitled dialog box appears asking whether you want to update links.
Since the template is saved in a subfolder, updating the links in the code is neces- sary so that they will continue to work properly when you create child pages later. Although the page still looks exactly the same, you can identify a template in two ways. Second, the ile extension is.
A template is dynamic, meaning that Dreamweaver maintains a connection to all pages within the site that are derived from it. Whenever you add or change content within the dynamic regions of the page and save it, Dreamweaver passes those changes to all the child pages automatically, keeping them up to date. Some sections of the page should contain areas where you can insert unique content. Dreamweaver allows you to designate these areas of the page as editable. Inserting editable regions When you irst create a template, Dreamweaver treats all the existing content as part of the master design.
Child pages created from the template would be exact duplicates, except that the content would be locked and uneditable. You get around this barrier by deining editable regions in the template. First, give some thought to which areas of the page should be part of the template and which should be open for editing. Each editable region must have a unique name, but there are no other special conventions. After running the GRANT statement s , switch from the emp database back into the mysql database by running the following command:.
To observe what changes have been made to the db table in the main mysql database, execute the following SQL statement:. To observe what changes have been made to the user table in the main mysql database, execute the following SQL statement:. Note: For security purposes, do not modify the dbuser account in the user table unless the account needs administrative rights similar to the root or the MySQL administrator account.
If you grant these privileges, the dbuser will have access to the system database. If you make any manual changes to the user and db tables, reload the tables to process the changes using this command:.
A successful connection to a MySQL database in Dreamweaver depends on correct site definition entries when defining the site.
How to connect to a MySQL database in Dreamweaver
A small window appears, displaying a list of three CSS rules that apply to this heading. Dreamweaver renders the screen using the print style sheet. To jumpstart a lesson, copy the lesson folder to your hard drive and create a new site for that lesson using the Site Setup dialog box. P Note: Some 15 Once the page has loaded in the browser, activate print preview. But these hyperlinks have none of the lair of the vertical menu, with its changing background color.